Dr. Mohamed Al-Mansouri / د. محمد توفيق المنصوري
al-mansourimt@hotmail.com
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08 November 2007

كاتب كندي من اصل عربي من اليمن حاصل على درجة الدكتوراه في مجال الاقتصاد والعلوم الزراعية له ابحاث عديدة متخصصة في مجاله نشرت في مجلات عربية وعالمية باللغة العربية والانجليزية والبولندية

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Utilizing the scientific method to solve a problem

The ecological evaluation of crop rotation was presented by WALEWSKI (1964). It was based on field-featuring resulting from pre-crop demands and the value of species sequencing. This method was enhanced by KRZYMUSKI (1983) including the element of productivity and work-consumption.

In another work, the same author used a theoretical model of quantified indicators in order to evaluate cereal in cereal crop rotation [KRZYMUSKI 1980]. This method allowed him to evaluate the value of a field; energy input of labour and machines, average cereal yield, production of goods and allowed the calculation of co-factors of production mechanization for three types of cereal crop rotation. The above method of a production-economic character initiated wide interest.

The economic evaluation of various crops was taken up by PYTKOWSKI (1985). The indicators such as the intensity of sowing structure, material consumption, production levels, objective and non-objective gross income and productivity were used. However, PRZYBYSZ (1976) developed wide studies upon the evaluation of crop rotation using statistical methods. NIEWIADOMSKI (1982) proposed ecological-economic level evaluations in which he considered thirteen indicators (ecological-8, economic-5). For example, he evaluated a few specified crop rotations such as cereal, beets, potatoes, corn including monocultures.

The evaluation of the methods employed was undertaken by FILIPIAK (1988), FILIPIAK and KRZYMUSKI (1991) , KRZYMUSKI (1992) also wrote a monograph on the methods used in articles and Publications taken from source journals published on the occasion of the fifth seminar of Polish-Czech crop rotation (Olsztyn, 1991).

All possible methods of crop rotation evaluation were published in that book, such as the production, ecological and economic methods. He stated that in order to construct crop rotation, one has to set goals and production directions, determine regions, and manage agricultural production areas and determine the sowing structure while bearing in mind that crop rotation is only the final phase connecting all production areas in a farm. The above subjects are part of the agricultural economy [ORLINSKI 1986, VRKO 1992].

For many years various scientific authorities have demanded the use of the full plant production evaluations and particularly detailed economic evaluations including the calculation of labour and technical work input, materials and costs. Energy requirement as a method of plant cultivation examination was developed in USA and in Europe in the beginning of the 1970s, with the outbreak of the energy crisis [PIMENTEL 1974, LEACH 1976, PIMENTEL and HALL 1984].

The above method is treated as a part of the economic evaluation and is considered an objective method, not dependent upon price imbalance in the conditions of unstabilized market economy [SOBCZAK and other 1990; RZESZUTEK and SOBCZAK 1992, FEDJKO et al. 1994]. It allows the choice of the most beneficial production direction [MACIEJKO 1984, ANUSZEWSKI 1987, BAEK and WIELICKI 1990, WIELICKI 1990b], and also the evaluation of all input in order to produce crops and calculate their effectiveness in comparable measurements. On the farm it allows the choice of the proper methods of organization and comparison of effectiveness of areas and branches of production [NIETUPSKI 1990].

The economic rationalization of energy in plant production consists of an increase of per energy input unit, the improvement of soil fertility, the introduction of efficient species and strains of plants, proper crop rotation, improvements in agro-technology , improvements in machine and equipment construction [WJCICKI 1981, KRE 1986, ORLSKI 1986, NOWACKI 1988, ZITTA 1992]. It was also mentioned that agriculture is not only a recipient, but also a donor of energy in the form of food and fodder and other energy carriers such as straw, plant residue, manure and other carriers of energy , which are possible to recycle [LEWIS 1982].

MANTEUFFEL (1987) in the book entitled "Philosophy of agriculture" claims those countries, which don't have their own sources of energy but have large agricultural areas extend their plant production by those species, which provide fuel. American, Canadian and European as well as international references also point out the possibilities of alternative plant production (for example, rape (canola), sunflower and others) useful in converting their seed crop into fuel, in other words, allowing the use of energy from un-recyclable sources [NIEWIADOMSKI 1994, SPEDDING 1982, VRKO 1992].   







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