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Dr. Mohamed Al-Mansouri / د. محمد توفيق المنصوري
al-mansourimt@hotmail.com
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08 November 2007

كاتب كندي من اصل عربي من اليمن حاصل على درجة الدكتوراه في مجال الاقتصاد والعلوم الزراعية له ابحاث عديدة متخصصة في مجاله نشرت في مجلات عربية وعالمية باللغة العربية والانجليزية والبولندية

Reasons Poland Changed to Crop Rotation from Monoculture Cultivation

 

The problem of crop rotation in research was developed in Poland from ten to twenty years after the Second World War. The cause of those studies was the situation, which was created in plant cultivation by the work of the very well-known German economic B. Andreae (1967, 1974) specializing in plant production. He advocated the necessity of specialized development, particularly in medium-sized farms. In the same way, he decreased the number of employees and costs of mechanization, making possible the production of highly-demanded, large-scale plant raw material. He pointed out the necessity of products possessing qualifications to allow their complete control over agro-techniques in order to achieve high crop yields. Questioning the need for a crop rotation application, ANDREAE (1967) showed the importance of the other crop production factors such as scheduled cultivation and the sowing of plants backed by modern machines, equipment, common access to mineral fertilizers and modern plant-protection agents.

The above claims were followed by extreme opinions rejecting crop rotation “out-dated” and an “unnecessary barrier” to production, because widely-understood mechanical and chemical techniques were going to replace all its function. KUPPERS (1972) discussed that opinion. He pointed out the monocultured plant production is as old as agriculture itself, having started from monoculture, and in some parts of the World, is the main system of plant production (USA). Although in Europe where the population is larger, the usage of crop rotation is necessary.

The system of monoculture plant cultivation is an extreme form of specialization, in general, research in this field is said to be costly and lacking practical implementation.

At the same time, in the opinion of NIEWIADOMSKI (1982, 1987, 1993) and ZAWIŚLAK et al. (1990) they not only play an educational role, but also a theoretical and practical role as well. This system of production initiates the conditions in which all the defects caused by the over-simplification of plant structure appear very quickly. As a control object in statistical experiments, it allows a more exact evaluation of crop rotation models of different specialization levels. It also allows examination of stress mechanisms, which limit plant growth and development, competing plant concentration and agro-phags. This system allows examination into reinforcing the possibilities of different agro-technical factors weakening the pressure of those harmful phenomena. [ZAWIŚLAK et al. 1990]. The above benefits of research into monoculture were found in long-term cultivation [KREČĺŘ 1987,RYSZKOWSKI 1988, NIEWIADOMSKI 1995].

The biochemical stressing processes are the factors causing unsuccessful production in the continuous system of plant production [BRUSZKA 1987, WÓJCIK-WOJTKOWIAK 1992, RYSZKOWSKI and KARG 1992, SMYK 1992]. Biologically active substances (SBA) like phenols appearing in after-harvest decomposition are the source of the above processes. In very small volumes they are toxic to sprouting seeds, which cause sparcity and weakening in plants. The most difficult time is during the sowing of winter cereal after winter cereal because the left- over harvest contains little nitrogen and high amounts of fibre  and lignin (a wide ratio C: N).   As they are not very liable to decompose and deactivation of toxins in the soil  is performed very slowly and the period from the harvest to the sowing next plant is short [RYSZKOWSKI and KARG 1990, WÓJCIK -WOJTKOWIAK 1992].

  In monocultures, an upset in soil balance can be observed resulting from the monotony, which is created by providing the same nutrients in the soil after harvest [KVĚCH et al. 1985, SMYK 1992]. Pathogenic micro-organisms,  which cause plant diseases such as gangrene and rotting of root or stem systems become dominant over zoophytes in degrading dead organic matter [HERMAN 1992, KUROWSKI 1992]. The continuous cultivation of host plants allows the growth of parasites such as eel-worms, which feed on beets, cereal, potatoes and others. Their cysts, full of eggs, stay in the soil for a long time and leave larvae, which harm new seeds and sprouts [WOLNY 1992, ZAWIŚLAK and SADOWSKI 1992, ZAWIŚLAK and TYBURSKI 1992]. However, the earliest symptom of an upset balance in a field is the sudden concentration of weeds, which are difficult to combat. In the great competition for nutrients, cultivated plants are the losers [ADAMIAK 1992, ZAWIŚLAK and ADAMIAK 1994a, 1994b].


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